It’s all cut and dried – literally; science teaches us that light can be split into component colours. Such a lifeless and desiccated concept of nature leaves colours as nothing more than meaningless “objective” wavelengths that impinge upon our eyes. The human soul and spirit don’t factor in at all.

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Holistic science, on the other hand, takes an alternative view of colours that fully embraces life and the dynamics of nature, consistent with the ancient principles of Lao Tzu in the Tao Te Ching. The mysterious Tao truly manifests in colour phenomena.

Physics Entity Crisis

What should be regarded as a force [light] is understood in a material sense, while what is an impeded, moderated force is thought to be disintegrated, crushed, dissipated.
-J.W. von Goethe

Non-being, to name the origin of heaven and earth;
Being, to name the mother of ten thousand things.
Therefore, by the Everlasting Non-Being,
We desire to observe its hidden mystery;
By the Everlasting Being,
We desire to observe the manifestations.
-Lao Tzu

Ever since the advent of quantum theory several decades ago, the science of physics has undergone an intense re-evaluation of its worldview, a struggle that continues to reverberate to this day. Rather than an identity crisis such as people may experience, you could say physics has been suffering an entity crisis, particularly with the nature of light. For centuries, physicists have been chasing after the mystery of light, confident that they would one day unveil its innermost secrets. The chase has been based on an underlying assumption and belief that light is an entity – a material object at the sub-sensible level. This presumed entity has proven to be extremely elusive prey.

Pioneers of the current scientific method were originally convinced that light consisted of small particles, or corpuscles, that impinged upon the eyes to give us the sensation of sight. The particle theory eventually fell by the wayside when light was found to behave more like a wave. The wave concept prospered and was very much the rage for some time, until its certitude encountered sudden turbulence. Quantum theory began to determine a strange wave-particle duality attribute of light; at one moment it could behave simultaneously as both a wave and a particle. The photon, the hypothetical elementary unit of light, also displayed other bizarre and ambiguous attributes in experiments. Quantum physicist Arthur Zajonc compared light’s paradoxical characteristics to finding a physical object in our sense world that had no particular mass, colour, shape, size or position!

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The study of light has essentially headed into a maze, and physics has been unable to find its way out. Stephen Edelglass, scientific researcher and educator, suggests that the original path taken was a wrong turn – that the bizarre outcomes of light in quantum theory point to faulty thinking at the outset. We simply cannot imagine light as an elementary entity that’s like an “object” or a “thing” we encounter in our everyday sense experience. Although such abstract concepts based on analogies may serve a practical purpose for prediction and control in the service of industry and technology, they become untenable in the attempt to understand the ultimate nature of light.

It’s curious that heat, a close relative of light, had earlier undergone a somewhat similar entity crisis of its own, but science ultimately took a different direction when faced with ambiguity. Galileo had originally conceived of heat as “a multitude of minute particles having certain shapes and moving with certain velocities. Meeting with our bodies they penetrate by means of their extreme subtlety, and their touch as felt by us when they pass through our substance is the sensation we call ‘heat’.” In the eighteenth century, heat was hypothesized as a physical substance termed caloric that flowed like a liquid. Chemist Antoine Lavoisier found that, under certain situations, caloric would have no weight, or even negative weight. These findings seemed to nullify the idea of heat as a substance. Instead, heat is now theorized by science as simply a measurable property (temperature) of energy transfer from one body to another.

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Matter, the most sacred principle of all in classical physics, has also been undergoing an entity crisis. The electron – the subatomic charged particle building block of matter – apparently displays the paradoxical wave-particle duality. Then there’s the conundrum of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle which states “the more precisely the position [of an electron] is determined, the less precisely the momentum is known in this instant, and vice versa.” The notion of more exact measurement is thus a Catch-22; the very process of measurement at the subatomic level actually changes the entity being measured to accurately define it. As Lao Tzu stated, “The farther you go, the less you know.”

Are all these entity crises indicative of a threshold condition in physics? Have physicists hit the border that separates the physical from the metaphysical? Perhaps the bizarre and paradoxical findings point more to the immaterial realm of Taoist “Non-Being” than the material realm of “Being.” Conventional science continually skirts around the dicey issue, considering the immaterial territory to be non-reality. Perhaps science needs to take a more all-encompassing approach that bridges the ponderable and imponderable by embracing qualitative and affective aspects of reality. An holistic science provides such an approach, observing the “hidden mystery” (light) by its “manifestations” (colours).

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Holistic Colour Science

Ever splitting the light! How often do they strive to divide that which, despite everything, would always remain single and whole.
-J.W. von Goethe

Once the whole is divided, the parts need names.
There are already enough names.
One must know when to stop.
-Lao Tzu

Analytical science – what is commonly referred to as garden variety science – takes the whole, then dices, slices, counts and mathematizes with tremendous zeal. There’s no disputing the fruits of this type of scientific endeavour in developed nations. Ever since the industrial revolution, science has been touted as a panacea against the struggle to survive and opened the door to greater prosperity. Not until recent times has there been the widespread recognition that this sort of science is a double edged sword; it’s cut a mark in many other ways. Many are now well aware of the threats to our health, our ecology and our economy imposed by our dependence on the rampant spread of technology.

Sir Isaac Newton used analytical science to supposedly prove how colours are contained within the original light. We are taught that he discovered his findings by means of his famous experiment with the prism, splitting the light into the uniform spectrum. Yet his experimentation was more like an illusionist’s trick; the rainbow of colours that emerged through the prism was conjured like the transformation of a white silk handkerchief into other colours. Henri Bortoft, a physicist and philosopher of science, refers to such a science conclusion as “sleight of mind.” The idea of spectral colours being separated from the light is an inversion of the thought process. The idea wasn’t discovered from the experiment; rather, the so-called objective experiment was actually a demonstration of Newton’s preconceived idea (theory). The entity bias – the corpuscular particles – was built in from the start.

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Sir Arthur Eddington, astrophysicist and philosopher of science, spoke of Newton’s prism experiment in a discussion of “Discovery or Manufacture?” Eddington compared it to a sculptor who theorizes that a human head exists within a rough block of marble. The sculptor proceeds with his experiment, and after chipping away with the chisel, proves his theory with the presentation of a human bust. In Newton’s case, the prism unwittingly served as both the block and the chisel that manufactured the end result that he “saw” there all along.

Although Newton wasn’t out to intentionally manufacture trickery, another big name in the history of science apparently had no such qualms. Although René Descartes is known for his legacy of the mind-body Cartesian split, he could well be considered a forerunner to the modern illusionist entertainment industry. When studying how a rainbow appears in the sky, Descartes devised a scheme to create an artificial rainbow. He wished to create “an invention for making [religious] signs appear in the sky, which would cause great wonder in those who were ignorant of the causes… But I admit that skill and much work would be necessary in order to proportion these fountains, and to cause the liquids there to leap so high that these figures could be seen from afar by a whole nation, without the trick being discovered.” (Does this tale perhaps suggest a partial parallel to the state of current analytical science – an elitist undertaking to control the “ignorant” masses?)

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An alternative to analytical science is holistic science, an approach to nature which doesn’t divide the whole. It’s a qualitative study of nature that embraces unity and strives to continually identify relationships. Phenomena may be classified in an analytical sense, but are not cut off and treated as separate entities. Everything remains connected and interdependent. Not a subjective science as it is sometimes wrongly labelled, holistic science actually unites the artificial Cartesian split of objectivity and subjectivity; it’s a participatory science where the role of the human is front and centre – the heart and soul of the inquiry.

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, the renowned German poet, novelist and playwright, dedicated much of his life studying phenomena in the tradition of natural philosophy. His scientific endeavours encompassed wide-ranging research in subjects such as geology, meteorology, botany, morphology, and colour. Rudolf Steiner, who was formally educated in the classical sciences, edited Goethe’s major scientific writings, bringing his works to a broader audience. The impact of Goethe’s holistic science of phenomenology has been so great that it is termed Goethean Science. Steiner took Goethean Science to a new level when he founded his Anthroposophy.

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 Of all Goethe’s scientific works, his voluminous study of colour has probably drawn the most attention – unfortunately, not for the reasons Goethe had hoped. His writing on colour was partly a stinging polemic against the dominant Newtonian science of the era which he found to be so dehumanizing. Not surprisingly, his battle met with strong resistance from classical, analytical science. Goethe wasn’t trained as a physicist or mathematician, so his observations on colour phenomena were soundly rejected by the majority of analytical scientists, and still are to this day. Most of the criticism, though, amounts to superficial comments from those entrenched in dogmatic scientism.

The entity crisis in physics has seen somewhat of a revival of Goethean colour science. A few quantum physicists and analytical scientists have broken free from dogma and, having studied Goethe’s work in depth, appreciate the merits of this holistic science. Werner Heisenberg even went on record as saying, “If one should wish to reproach Goethe, it could only be for not going far enough – that is, for having attacked the views of Newton instead of declaring that the whole of Newtonian Physics-Optics, Mechanics and the Law of Gravitation – were from the devil.” Zajonc, a contemporary expert on Goethean Science, suggests that Goethe’s “gentle empiricism” offers an antidote to science’s “black void of pure instrumentalism” and its looming “demoralizing nihilism.”

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 Goethe’s intense, participatory study of colour phenomena led him to see a dynamic interplay of the forces of light and darkness. It’s a polarity that is consistent with Taoist principles.

The Polarity of Colour Phenomena

Light and darkness united dynamically by means of turbidity generate colour.
J.W. von Goethe

Therefore being and non-being give rise to each other,
The difficult and easy complement each other,
The long and short shape each other,
Voices and instruments harmonize with one another,
The front and rear follow upon each other.
-Lao Tzu

Imagine you’re in a soundproof room with a viewing window beside a wind tunnel and are unable to tell if the air is rushing by. Then a wind chime is placed in the tunnel and a speaker is turned on. Suddenly you see the chimes moving and you hear the tinkling tones. The force of air had to interact with physical objects before you were aware of its presence. A material medium was needed for reference.

Zajonc once built a special demonstration box as a science exhibit for viewing pure light. The box was carefully constructed so that it didn’t illuminate any interior surfaces. When the projector light was turned on and shone intensely inside the box, all one could see was utter, deep darkness. The light itself was invisible. Attached to the box was a handle connected to a wand that could penetrate into the exhibit. Once inside, the wand brightly lit up.

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A common misconception is that pure light is white. A sunbeam through a window in a room during the day, or the beams spreading from a car’s headlights at night, are due to the light interacting with a surface or fine air particles. An example of pure light without geometric “rays” or “beams” is a full moon on a clear night. The sun’s reflection gives us the light by the silvery moon, but nowhere can rays of pure light from the sun be seen in the night sky.

I liken this aspect of pure light somewhat to pure consciousness. Consciousness is perhaps beyond the temporal and spatial in another realm or dimension – not localized in the brain – and cannot be directly detected by the external senses. When consciousness interacts with brain matter, suddenly ideas, images and sounds “appear,” seemingly out of nowhere.

Goethe intently studied the coloured fringes that appear through a prism. He concluded that the condition of the famous ROY G BIV spectral colours of the rainbow that alight is but a special, isolated case. A few examples of coloured fringes as viewed through a prism are shown in Figures 1 to 4. Figure 5 shows how coloured fringes actually emerge from a prism contrasted against an erroneous educational depiction.

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Goethe eventually abandoned the prism as a complicating factor and began to observe the phenomena outdoors in the sky and the landscape to find the core conditions where colours first emerge. Like axioms in geometry, he sought to discover situations which form the basis for all other colour phenomena. He eventually narrowed it down to two such primal phenomena:

  1. Light emitted through a colourless, transparent medium first manifests as white. As the medium becomes denser and the transparency decreases, the light darkens to hues of yellow, orange, and red. The sun takes on these hues depending on whether it’s overhead or near the horizon where the atmosphere is thicker. At the extreme end of densification and opacity, light is shut out to black.
  1. Darkness illuminated through a colourless, transparent medium first manifests as black. As the medium becomes denser and the transparency decreases, the darkness lightens to hues of violet, indigo, and blue. The black night sky becomes modified by the sun’s daytime illumination and displays a range of these hues, from dark blue overhead to light blue near the horizon. At the extreme end of densification and opacity, darkness is diminished to whiteness.

What’s key to these two phenomena is the dynamic interplay of light and darkness. The darkening of light in the one case, and the lightening of darkness in the second case, create opposite ranges of colours. Because of this, Goethe suggested the term polarity was most suited to colour phenomena, for it represents “the eternal systole and diastole, the eternal collapsion and expansion, the inspiration and expiration of the world in which we live and move.”

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Colour bands occur through a prism due to a mingling of these polar forces. Reviewing Figures 1 to 5(b), you can see how these phenomena arise along edges between light and dark. As a band of light or dark becomes narrowed, the primal colours unite to form secondary colours of green or magenta.

A prism isn’t the only condition for the polar opposite coloured bands to appear. In the seventeenth century, Francesco Maria Grimaldi, a mathematician and physicist, studied coloured fringes that developed when a very narrow beam of sunlight was projected along the edges of small objects. He noted that the shadows cast were “always bluish at the side which is nearer the [central] shadow and reddish on the further side.” Polar colour effects can be seen when looking at a light through a feather or reflected from a compact disc (See Figure 6). The media may differ, but a similar dynamic and complex interaction occurs between the light and the darkness.

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Goethe also studied the relationship between colour perception and the eye, and found the eye to be very responsive in the process. The motto, “For every action, there’s an equal and opposite reaction,” certainly applies, as the eye responds to outer colours with inner complementary colours. Goethe developed a colour circle to represent the primal colour phenomena and the role of the eye in colour perception (Figure 7). Heinrich Proskauer, an expert in Goethean colour science, noted that Goethe’s colour circle is “a living, holistic figure before us, one that is qualitatively differentiated throughout … each color is always one-sided. Only a union of the opposing pairs can represent the whole and therewith an active totality. This is a reconciliation of the polarities of light and darkness into unity at the highest level.”

Goethe further studied colour from the standpoint of emotions and feelings – considered out-of-bounds territory for analytical colour science. He noted that the yellow-to-red hues are warm colours: “The feelings they excite are quick, lively, aspiring.” On the other pole, the violet-to-blue cool colours “produce a restless, susceptible, anxious impression.” Green, which is a mixture between these extremes, has a more balanced impact, for the beholder “experiences a distinctly grateful impression” and “has neither the wish nor the power to imagine a state beyond it.”

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Colour manifestation is, indeed, another example of nature’s polarity at work, well recognized in Taoism and known more commonly nowadays with the concept of Yin/Yang (Figure 8 as seen through a prism). Rather than opposing forces being fixed, absolute and competing, they are flexible, changing and complementary. René Guénon, the French metaphysician, explained that yang (active principle) and yin (passive principle) “are associated symbolically with light and darkness; in all things the light side is yang, the dark side is yin … in the domain of manifestation, yang is never without yin, nor yin without yang.” Darkness, then, isn’t simply the absence of light, but its passive counterpart. These invisible, polar currents don’t simply mix to give what might be considered a two-dimensional grey, but dynamically mingle in such a way that colours seem to spring to life in a third dimension. It’s apt that the prism is a triangular shape, the “Great Triad” of esoteric symbolism, representing the union of complementary polarities.

Analytical science has classified several different technical cases where colours can arise, such as refraction, diffraction, dispersion, scattering, and interference. The scientists then hypothesize beneath what our senses confront to try and find a common microscopic entity or element that is the cause – whether it be a particle, a wave, wave-particle duality, or some other mysterious entity or process not yet dreamed up. The theories and mathematics are impressive, but the knowledge of light and colours studied in this materialistic manner is a disjointed venture that dissects and deadens nature.

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For holistic science, whether one calls it refraction or diffraction, it’s all a distraction. Goethe studied the phenomena on their terms at the sense level and had no interest in abstract concepts or theoretical causes added beneath the phenomena. He strove to identify the common conditions where colours arise in nature, and his approach provides coherence, relationships and unity. It truly is in tune with the Tao.

With all the theoretical struggles in physics over the past three centuries, vision science continues to be based mainly on the Newtonian model of optics and colours. The eye is studied as an “object,” artificially disconnected from the human soul and spirit. The industry believed they discovered a physical defect (progressive myopia), where in fact – like the spectrum supposedly split apart by the prism – they actually manufactured the condition and foisted it upon an unsuspecting public. What’s myopic is the old science itself, unable to see where it’s gone astray. A more holistic and Taoist approach to the study of light, colour and human vision is long overdue.

The concluding Part 2 of this article series, Restoring the Spirit of Colour Inquiry, explores in more detail the enigmatic interplay of light and darkness through a prism.

 

(a) (b) Figure 1 – White rectangle with black background (a) and as seen through prism (b)

 

(a) (b) Figure 2 – Narrow white rectangle with black background (a) and as seen through prism (b). Note the appearance of green in the middle once the coloured fringes in Figure 1 merged.

 

(a) (b) Figure 3 – Black rectangle with white background (a) and as seen through prism (b)

 

(a) (b) Figure 4 – Narrow black rectangle with white background (a) and as seen through prism (b). Note the appearance of magenta in the middle once the coloured fringes in Figure 3 merged.

(a) Figure 5 – Erroneous educational depiction of how a prism is supposed to “split” light into component “parts” in geometric precision, both within the prism and outside the prism (a).

(b) Actual light through a prism (b). Note there is no spectrum within the prism (1), nor does it appear immediately out of the prism (2). The band of yellow-to-red and the band of blue-to-violet emerge from the edges, while a beam of white is still visible in the middle. The green colour develops further out when the polar coloured light bands disperse and unite (3). Note also that the reflected portion of the beam within the prism exits at the base (4). No colour spectrum emerges, contrary to what classical Newtonian science claims is supposed happen due to refraction (bending of the beam of light from the glass to the air).

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Figure 6 – Dynamic interplay of light and darkness create coloured bands. Light seen through a feather (a) and reflected from a CD (b).

Figure 7 – Goethe’s colour circle.

Figure 8 – Taoist Yin/Yang symbol as seen through prism.

Reflecting on the Matter

Through his intensive study of colours, continually seeking unified relationships among the manifold cases, Goethe was able to identify the core situations where nature created polar ranges of colours. These primal phenomena are repeated from the previous article:

  1. Light emitted through a colourless, transparent medium first manifests as white. As the medium becomes denser and the transparency decreases, the light darkens to hues of yellow, orange, and red. The sun takes on these hues depending on whether it’s overhead or near the horizon where the atmosphere is thicker. At the extreme end of densification and opacity, light is shut out to black.

  1. Darkness illuminated through a colourless, transparent medium first manifests as black. As the medium becomes denser and the transparency decreases, the darkness lightens to hues of violet, indigo, and blue. The black night sky becomes modified by the sun’s daytime illumination and displays a range of these hues, from dark blue overhead to light blue near the horizon. At the extreme end of densification and opacity, darkness is diminished to whiteness.

What continued to perplex Goethe for many years after publishing his colour studies was why a prism was able to create these primal opposite bands. He initially offered an analogy to help explain the dynamic interplay of light and darkness, comparing the situation to a mirror with thick glass that gives a double image. A “main image” vividly reflects from the back metal coating, while an offset “accessory image” more weakly reflects from the front surface of the glass. He suggested that light refracted by a prism somehow creates an accessory image that lengthens the original main image, spreading light into darkness and darkness into light at the edges. As a result, the red-yellow band would appear at one edge and the blue-violet band at the other edge.

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Mainstream science has soundly rejected and ridiculed such a notion. Even those on the pro-Goethean side of the debate, such as Proskauer, Lehrs and Sepper, conceded that Goethe’s attempt at such an analogous explanation was weak, leaving the process an enigma for Goethean science to this day.

But have friends and foes alike been too hasty in their judgment? By “reflecting on the matter,” perhaps the role of reflection in the prism has been completely overlooked while refraction has taken centre stage. Maybe Goethe was much closer to solving the riddle than he realized. With this in mind, we’ll consider two anomalies which perplex the Newtonian colour theory, but can be plausibly explained in terms of Goethe’s primal phenomena.

Anomaly 1 – Different Colour Orientation Between Objective and Subjective Spectrums

When looking through a prism towards a light object surrounded by a dark background, a subjective spectrum is said to be produced. When a light beam shines through a prism and is projected on a screen, an objective spectrum is said to result. As it turns out, the subjective spectrum is the inverse of the objective spectrum (Figure 1) with respect to colours, and such a difference contradicts the accepted Newtonian explanation. Figure 2 shows an erroneous educational depiction of a prism supposedly separating colours contained in the original light. If this depiction were correct, the orientation of coloured fringes should be consistent on both images in Figure 1 – reddish above, bluish below.

This observation of inversely coloured images was published in the “Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society” in 1676 as part of a critical review of Newton’s theory of colours. Anthony Lucas, a Jesuit professor, identified several conditions where colour phenomena clearly conflicted with the theory, and this particular observation was one of them. If blue coloured rays refract more than red, then how could these images be reversed? In correspondence with Lucas, Newton’s rebuttal was evasive rather than revelatory, as it didn’t adequately address the issue in relation to the new theory. Given Newton’s stature at the time, the objection quickly faded into obscurity where it has essentially remained unanswered ever since.

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Goethean science, on the other hand, offers a plausible explanation for the inversely coloured images. The following tentative interpretations are suggested:

Objective Spectrum

Figure 3 is a photo of a light beam interacting with a prism. In addition to the beam emerging with the coloured fringes from the right face, other non-coloured beams emerge from the left face and bottom face. The various paths of light are due to a combination of reflection and refraction, both internally and externally; the prism faces act simultaneously as both mirrors and windows.

Figure 4 is a pictorial representation of this dual mirror-window process. The original light beam (LB) is first split at face ‘A,’ reflecting (LB1) in the air and refracting (LB2) inside the prism. The beam LB2 then reflects internally (LB3) at face ‘B’ and refracts (LB4) out of face ‘B’ where the coloured fringes develop. From the lower face ‘C’ emerges a refracted beam (LB5). The internally reflected light at face ‘C’ is not shown, as it is very weak in intensity.

To interpret the orientation of the coloured fringes of the objective spectrum, Figure 5 isolates a portion of face ‘B’ at the junction of light beams LB2, LB3, and LB4. The white arrows inside the prism represent the direction of lightening as internally reflected beam LB3 laterally shifts light from beam LB2. This shift through the dense medium causes darkening at the upper light edge of LB2 (designated as negative) and lightening at the lower dark edge of LB2 (designated as positive). The result is a reddish upper fringe where the light edge is darkened and a bluish lower fringe where the dark edge is lightened. Beam LB4 shines through face ‘B’ to spread out these edge colours in full splendour.

An equilateral prism isn’t the only shape where this phenomenon occurs. The same coloured fringes can be seen emerging from a cylindrical transparent medium. If the angle between the beams inside the medium is small, the coloured fringes don’t appear. Once the angle opens to a much greater degree between the beams, the coloured fringes then become apparent. Refer to Figures 6 and 7.

Figure 8 depicts what happens to an objective spectrum when a prism is rotated to the verge of internal reflection. The violet-indigo-blue portion of the spectrum begins to disappear from the externally refracted beam, bleeding the bluish colour back inside and tinting the lower beam. Once the prism is rotated further, the spectrum disappears with total internal reflection.

Subjective Spectrum

The interpretation of the subjective spectrum requires us to consider sight lines as opposed to light beams. First of all, if you look directly into emerging light beam LB(as depicted in Figure 4), you do not see the inverted image of colours. Because of the sensitivity of your central vision1, you actually see a bright coloured beam, not an entire image of coloured fringes. The colour of the beam coming towards you varies with subtle head movement. It may be yellow at one instant, white the next, or perhaps blue the next. The orientation of the colours with your head movement matches the orientation of the coloured beams emerging from face ‘B’ in the objective spectrum.

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To see the inverted image of the subjective spectrum, your line of sight actually has to be above the light beam as shown in Figure 9. The dual mirror-window process of the prism works with sight lines as well, causing reflection and refraction as depicted by the dashed lines. Figure 10 isolates a portion of face ‘A’ at the junction of sight lines SL2, SL3 and SL4. Sight line SL4 is looking towards the round light source at an oblique angle to the light beam itself. The black arrows inside the prism represent the direction of darkening as internally reflected sight line SL3 laterally shifts darkness from the image projected back along sight line SL2.This shift through the dense medium causes the sensation of lightening at the upper dark edge of the image (designated as positive) and darkening at the lower light edge of the image (designated as negative). The result is the appearance of a bluish upper fringe where the dark edge is lightened and a reddish lower fringe where the light edge is darkened.

Anomaly 2 – “Homogenous” Spectrum Colours Tinted by Coloured Fringes

The prevailing scientific colour theory is based on Newton’s experimentum crucis, the crucial experiment, as illustrated in hisOpticks (see Figure 11). By setting up his experiment in this fashion, he was supposedly able to isolate single, homogeneous colours of the spectrum for analysis through a second prism. The discrete entities are said to refract at different angles – “diverse refrangibilty.”

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Isolating individual spectral colours is easier said than done. Figure 12 shows the results of three attempts to isolate different colours that emerged from a prism. When a narrow slit was placed in front of each colour, the beams that continued past the slit didn’t maintain their colours, but spread out and developed multi-coloured fringes. An attempt to isolate a white beam met with no better success. A wide white beam that emerged from the prism was narrowed through the slit and, instead of a thin white beam shining through, a narrow spectrum with green in the middle developed as the beam spread out. Refer to Figure 13.

In the seventeenth century, Edmé Mariotte, a highly credentialed French natural philosopher, tried to verify Newton’s crucial experiment. Yet he encountered the problem with coloured fringes when attempting to isolate individual colours. The pesky anomaly to the theory persisted for many years, until Newton requested an improved version of the crucial experiment through the Royal Society. The experimenter, Jean Théophile Desaguliers, a close personal friend of Newton, was hardly an unbiased observer. The only way he could uphold Newton’s conclusion was by substantially altering the experimental setup (the “refinements” required three apertures, two prisms, a plane mirror and a collimating lens). It begs the question: Was this really the same crucial experiment, or was it a case of manufacturing the desired outcome by introducing more complicating media that modified the light with additional reflections and refractions, ultimately canceling the coloured fringes?

In any event, over a century later, the theory again hit a snag when an eminent physicist came to a contrary conclusion. Sir David Brewster, famous for inventing the kaleidoscope, encountered coloured fringes in his experiments with light absorption and prisms. Using light filtered through a blue coloured glass, he transmitted it into a prism to study the result. The unique band of colours which developed from the original blue beam took him by surprise. He concluded that green wasn’t a homogenous colour after all, but could be decomposed into yellow and blue. It led him to state: “Difference of colour is therefore not a test of difference of refrangibility [his emphasis]and the conclusion deduced by Newton is no longer admissible as a general truth.”

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This was quite a startling statement from a classical physicist, one who would have undoubtedly scoffed at Goethe for coming to the same conclusion a few years earlier. Goethe and other Newtonian dissenters before him clearly demonstrated by several means that different colours have the same angle of refraction. Figures 14 and 15 are two simple demonstrations showing how different colours refract equally.

Returning to the tentative interpretation offered for Anomaly 1 in this article, such a Goethean explanation is suggested for the coloured fringes; in fact, it applies in general for the action of the prism. Whether one considers light beams (the objective spectrum, Figure 5 sketch) or sight lines (the subjective spectrum, Figure 10 sketch), the dual mirror-window interface within the dense, transparent medium develops the propensity for primal colour manifestation. Perhaps internal reflection transversely passing through the original light path or sight path generates a lateral force – a cross current, so to speak, within the axial current. Like the warp and woof of a fabric, the spectral colours develop as the cross current dynamically weaves light over darkness and darkness over light at the edges, regardless of whether the initial projected colour is white, yellow, blue, or whatever hue.

Multiple Effects

The governing colour theory is reinforced through a common depiction (Figure 16) that supposedly proves how two prisms can decompose and recompose pure “white light.” Through formal schooling and popular science, this concept has grown to the point of iconic status. Accepted on faith, it all seems quite factual and logical. However, if you try the demonstration for yourself, it’s certainly not as portrayed. Figure 17 is an actual set-up with two prisms, and the results are dramatically different from an artist’s rendition. The complex mingling of refracted and reflected light beams through the second prism develops coloured fringes exiting two faces. In fact, when considering the second prism alone, one could argue that red light refracts more than violet light! Demonstrations are posted on university websites that claim “success” with this experiment. Using more sophisticated equipment, they display a narrow white portion projected through the second prism, bordered by wide coloured spectrum bands, bluish on one side, reddish on the other. No mention is made of these coloured bands.

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Figure 18 provides another demonstration of multiple effects at play. The photo was taken from the vantage point of a light source situated at the lower right corner directed towards the prism on the right (standing vertically on edge). On the left was a white card that had a checkerboard pattern below, and the beam that emerged from the prism was projected onto the upper white portion. The right portion of the photo is the image that appeared to the eye when looking inside the prism. The left image has coloured fringes around the lighted circle, whereas the image of the lighted circle inside the prism has no coloured fringes, yet coloured fringes appear at black and white edges of the checkerboard pattern. Note that the orientation of the reddish and bluish colours are the inverse of those around the lighted circle to the left.

With the prism standing vertically on edge, the coloured fringes appear along the horizontal axis, orientated left and right. Goethean interpretations of these various effects are as follows:

  1. Refer again to Figure 5 (the orientation is different, but the principle is the same). The coloured fringes which appear on the lighted circle at the left side of photo are due to the lateral shifting of the internally reflected light beam toward the left from the back face of the prism. The shift through the dense medium causes darkening at the right edge of the beam and lightening at the left edge. The portion of the beam that emerges from the prism shines through the back face to illuminate these colours on the card – bluish left, reddish right.

  1. Two cancelling effects are at play to cause no coloured fringes to appear on the right side of the photo. Refer again to Figure 10. The line of sight in this case is along the same horizontal axis as the projected light beam. The sight line reflects internally toward the left from the back face of the prism, laterally shifting darkness through the dense medium. The shifting of the darkening effect is in the same direction as the shifting of the lightening effect noted in 1) above. The consequence is that these two lateral effects cancel one another and there is no net change to the edges of the white circle. Thus, the circle appears white.

  1. When looking at the checkered pattern, Figure 10 explains why coloured fringes appear when looking inside the prism. This shift of sight lines through the dense medium causes the sensation of lightening at the right dark edge of the white squares and darkening at the left light edge of the white squares. The result is the appearance of bluish right fringes where the dark edges are lightened and reddish left fringes where the light edges are darkened.

Colourful Dogma

Although Newton had many critics of his then new colour theory, through all the Royal Society correspondences, he defended it tenaciously as a fact, not a theory. Newton continually countered his critics by claiming his conclusion was a self-evident fact based on the experimentum crucis.

Mandelbulb_Color

Goethe in his day also took strong issue with the supposed factual conclusion. He commented, “This first and greatest mistake must be noted above all. For how can one hope for advances in science if that which is merely concluded, opined, or believed is allowed to be forced upon us as a fact? … Let future revisionists therefore be requested to see to it that no one, whoever he may be, be allowed to pass off an explanation, theory, or hypothesis as a fact.”

Once a scientific theory is permitted to harden to a fact, it is an immense struggle to overcome the bias. Imre Lakatos, a distinguished mathematical and scientific philosopher, spoke of the predictable response to challenges: “Scientists have thick skins. They do not abandon a theory because facts contradict it. They normally either invent some rescue hypothesis to explain what they then call a mere anomaly and if they cannot explain the anomaly, they ignore it, and direct their attention to other problems.” Newton’s colour theory represents a classic case of this very type of response, not only at the onset, but continually bolstered by faithful followers. In Goethe Contra Newton, Dennis Sepper explains how the defensive posturing and politics strike at the very core of science itself, cracking the façade of a virtuous, progressive and objective venture:

Newton took his opponents’ criticism and even their hesitancy as blindness to the truth and regarded all attempts to explain the phenomena by other means as inferior … He treated even his most eminent adversaries with barely concealed condescension and annoyance … and the lesser participants had to endure pedantic lectures on the proper method of arguing and deciding the truth in natural philosophy. … Newton was therefore never compelled to engage the profound issues that he himself had raised … [instead he would] conceal and ossify it [his colour theory] ever more completely with masses of experiments, improperly qualified claims, and a veneer of mathematics. For in Newton’s case we are talking about a scientific success that decisively influenced the natural sciences for generations. Insofar as these shortcomings and this dogmatism went unnoticed and uncriticized, we have to deal with a significant failure of early modern science itself.

A Little Splash of Color

The theory has become so ossified that even critics of the dominant scientific consciousness have fully accepted the dogma. Cultural historian Morris Berman, who rallies the call for a more participatory, post-modern science to counter the alienating and nihilistic trend of reductionist thought, objects to Newton’s atomistic approach. Although Berman notes that the theory never really explains why colours should be innate properties of light, he concedes that Newton’s experiment “establishes the thesis beyond doubt.” On the contrary, the doubts and anomalies have been banished from consideration and simply remain in exile.

Conclusion: The Essence of Colours

Newton was clearly a man of immense genius and his stature as a leading figure within modern science is undeniable. Yet there was another side to his work that is largely unknown; he spent many years of his life – perhaps more than he dedicated to his famous scientific treatises – deeply engrossed in the practice of alchemy. Manly Hall, founder of the Philosophical Research Society, refers to alchemy as a “threefold art … the divine, the human, and the elemental” – corresponding to spirit, soul, and body – not the “ridiculed and despised craft“ that’s popularized and distorted as simply a material quest to turn physical lead into gold. The true practitioners’ motto was, “Our gold is not the gold of the vulgar,” for alchemy was the Great Work aspiring to the highest principles. Hall further noted, “it can easily be appreciated why the sages and philosophers created and evolved an intricate allegory to conceal their wisdom.” Thus, Newton’s interest in alchemy and sacred symbolism was a well guarded secret until descendants auctioned his private manuscripts in 1936.

India

In a sense, Newton appears to have been the epitome of the Cartesian mind-body split. On the one hand, he was a pure materialist, while on the other, a sincere esotericist. Yet, it is his materialist side that has prevailed, fueling the industrial revolution and so dominating the outlook of modern civilization. His goal to reduce colours to fixed geometry and mathematics (not sacred geometry or sacred number), effectively drove the ethereal down to the corporeal level. It represents an exemplary case of the “reign of quantity” that René Guénon, French metaphysician, so lucidly presented – a significant step in the descent from “essence” to “substance.” The impact of the governing theory has solidified the concept of colour manifestation, deadening it in the process.

Within the scientific (or, shall we say, scientistic) establishment, Goethe’s polemical attack on the Newtonian colour doctrine met with scorn and derision. As a man of letters and not numbers, Goethe was considered to be completely out of his element, no match to Newton’s experimental and mathematical acumen. Yet it may come as a surprise that he had something very much in common with Newton; Goethe also had a profound interest in alchemy and it heavily influenced all his work. The difference was that Goethe never parceled off the sacred as a separate domain. For him, the goal of a natural philosopher (what it was called before the term scientist came into being), was a qualitative venture to find correspondences, relationships and unity in nature. The world was whole; art, science, and spirituality were never meant to be cut off from one another.

When Goethe studied the phenomena in the natural philosophic tradition, he strove to elaborate a holistic colour science with the spirit in the forefront. He bristled that science was sinking deeply into a mechanistic and quantitative abyss; to him, secular mathematics was a “scientific coffin.” He knew he faced an uphill battle against the dogma, for he stated, “I shall do my best all the same, so that even if I too am damned as a heretic, at least a more fortunate successor may find a usable preliminary work.” Let’s hope that more centuries don’t pass before a successor is able to restore the spirit of colour inquiry and set the record straight on the essence of colour phenomena.

Figure 1 – Inverted colour orientation from the same light source. At left, looking through a prism towards a light as it enters the prism, thesubjective spectrum (a). At right, looking away from the prism at the image externally projected onto a card, the objective spectrum(b).

Figure 2 – Erroneous educational depiction of how a prism is supposed to “disperse” light into component “parts” in geometric precision, both within the prism and outside the prism.

Figure 3 – A prism reflecting and refracting light at all three faces.

Figure 4 – The dual mirror-window process of the prism causing light beam (LB) to reflect and refract (deflect) both internally and externally.

Figure 5 – Isolated view of a portion of prism face ‘B’ from Figure 4 where coloured fringes disperse from light beam LB4. The white arrows signify the direction of lightening across beam LB2.

Figure 6 – Light entering a cylinder from the left. The exiting beam on the right has no coloured fringes when the angle (designated by the dotted white lines) between the internally refracted and reflected beams is small.

Figure 7 – Light entering a cylinder from the left. The exiting beam on the right has coloured fringes (red-yellow on the top edge and blue-indigo on the bottom edge) when the angle between the internally refracted and reflected beams is greater.

Figure 8 – The arrow indicates the direction in which the prism was rotated (a) to obtain total internal reflection as seen in (b) where the colours disappear.

Figure 9 – Sight line (SL) looking back through the prism gets reflected and refracted.

Figure 10 – Isolated view of a portion of prism face ‘A’ from Figure 9 where coloured fringes appear along sight line SL4.The dark arrows signify the direction of darkening across sight line SL2.

Figure 11 – Illustration from Newton’s Opticks showing the setup for his experimentum crucis, or crucial experiment. A single colour emerging from prism ‘ABC’ was supposedly narrowed at ‘g’ in screen ‘dc’ and then directed at the second prism ‘abc.’

Figure 12 – A narrow slit was placed across three specific colours from a prism spectrum in an attempt to isolate the coloured beams. The isolated beams entered the slit from the right of the photo and spread out towards the left. All three initial beams, (a) yellow, (b) green, and (c) light blue, did not maintain the specific colours that were isolated. In all cases, coloured fringes developed.

Figure 13- A wide beam that was mainly white emerges from the face of the prism. A narrow slit was placed over the centre portion and the white beam doesn’t remain white, but transforms into spectral colours to the left. The coloured fringes develop at the edges of the slit and meet in the middle farther left to give green.

Figure 14 – Three coloured pens all refract equally through a 5 cm thick, transparent medium.

Figure 15 – A light shining through a slit with different coloured filters results in coloured lights aligning in series (top). When refracted through a prism, the coloured lights remain aligned in series, with equal angles of refraction (bottom).

Figure 16 – Erroneous educational depiction of how first prism PQR is supposed to disperse “white light” into spectrum colours, while inverted prism P’Q’R’ then is supposed to recombine the dispersed colours back to “white light.”

Figure 17 – Actual demonstration of light interacting with two prisms having opposite orientations, showing a complex array of reflected and refracted beams. The beam emerging through the right face of the second prism is anything but “recomposed” white. The spectrum in this case has red refracting more than blue.

Figure 18 – Multiple refraction/reflection effects at play when comparing view through prism (right) and view of projected light beam (left).

Doug Marsh

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  • ©Doug Marsh 2010 – 2011
  • Doug Marsh, a civil engineer who lives in Canada, is the author of Restoring Your Eyesight: A Taoist Approach published by Healing Arts Press. www.taosight.comContact
  • 1Vision is clearest in the centre portion of the eye, what I term “concentric focus” in Restoring Your Eyesight: A Taoist Approach.

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