Nikolai Kozryev is known most for his work with mirrors and their ability to transport consciousness.
He was jailed for ten years by communists and not for his work with mirrors it was because he was a cosmic whistle blower of the highest order. What follows is the intro from a deep scientific paper he wrote proving that stars cannot be huge balls of burning flame. This is only the tip of the iceberg for he is hinting at the unthinkable to the initiated… this is why he was blotted out.
This is a presentation of research into the inductive solution to the problem on the internal constitution of stars. The solution is given in terms of the analytic study of regularities in observational astrophysics. Conditions under which matter exists in stars are not the subject of a priori suppositions, they are the objects of research.
In the first part of this research we consider two main correlations derived from observations: “mass-luminosity” and “period — average density of Cepheids”. Results we have obtained from the analysis of the correlations are different to the standard theoretical reasoning about the internal constitution of stars. The main results are: (1) in any stars, including even super-giants, the radiant pressure plays no essential part — it is negligible in comparison to the gaseous pressure; (2) inner regions of stars are filled mainly by hydrogen (the average molecular weight is close to 1/2); (3) absorption of light is derived from Thomson dispersion in free electrons; (4) stars have an internal constitution close to polytropic structures of the class 3/2.
The results obtained, taken altogether, permit calculation of the physical conditions in the internal constitution of stars, proceeding from their observational characteristics L, M , and R. For instance, the temperature obtained for the centre of the Sun is about 6 million degrees. This is not enough for nuclear reactions.
In the second part, the Russell-Hertzsprung diagram, transformed according to physical conditions inside stars shows: the energy output inside stars is a simple function of the physical conditions. Instead of the transection line given by the heat output surface and the heat radiation surface, stars fill an area in the plane of density and temperature. The surfaces coincide, being proof of the fact that there is only one condition — the radiation condition. Hence stars generate their energy not in any reactions. Stars are machines, directly generating radiations. The observed diagram of the heat radiation, the relation “mass-luminosity-radius”, cannot be explained by standard physical laws. Stars exist in just those conditions where classical laws are broken, and a special mechanism for the generation of energy becomes possible. Those conditions are determined by the main direction on the diagram and the main point located in the direction. Physical coordinates of the main point have been found using observational data. The constants (physical coordinates) should be included in the theory of the internal constitution of stars which pretend to adequately account for observational data. There in detail manifests the inconsistency of the explanations of stellar energy as given by nuclear reactions, and also calculations as to the percentage of hydrogen and helium in stars.
Also considered are peculiarities of some sequences in the Russell-Hertzsprung diagram, which are interesting from the theoretical viewpoint.
∗Editor’s remark: This is the doctoral thesis of Nikolai Aleksandrovich
Kozyrev (1908–1983), the famous astronomer and experimental physicist one of the founders of astrophysics in the 1930’s, the discoverer of lunar volcanism (1958), and the atmosphere of Mercury (1963) (see the article Kozyrev in the Encyclopaedia Britannica). Besides his studies in astronomy, Kozyrev contributed many original experimental and theoretical works in physics, where he introduced the “causal or asymmetrical mechanics” which takes the physical properties of time into account. See his articles reporting on his many years of experimental research into the physical properties of time, Time in Science and Philosophy (Prague, 1971) and On the Evolu- tion of Double Stars, Comptes rendus (Bruxelles, 1967). Throughout his scientific career Kozyrev worked at the Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory near St. Petersburg (except for the years 1946–1957 when he worked at the
Crimean branch of the Observatory). In 1936 he was imprisoned for 10 years without judicial interdiction, by the communist regime in the USSR. Set free in 1946, he completed the draft of this doctoral thesis and published it in Russian in the local bulletin of the Crimean branch of the Observatory (Proc. Crimean Astron. Obs., 1948, v. 2, and 1951, v. 6). Throughout the subsequent years he continued to expand upon his thesis. Although this research was started in the 1940’s, it remains relevant today, because the basis here is observational data on stars of regular classes. This data has not changed substantially during the intervening decades. (Translated from the final Russian text by D. Rabounski and S. J. Crothers.)
Energy, radiated by the Sun and stars into space, is maintained by special sources which should keep stars radiating light during at least a few billion years. The energy sources should be depen- dent upon the physical conditions of matter inside stars. It follows from this fact that stars are stable space bodies. During the last de- cade, nuclear physics discover- ed thermonuclear reactions that could be the energy source satis- fying the above requirements. The reactions between protons and numerous light nuclei, which result in transformations of hydrogen into helium, can be initiated under temperatures close to the possible temperature of the inner regions of stars — about 20 million degrees.
Comparing different thermonuclear reactions, Bethe con- cluded that the energy of the Sun and other stars of the main sequence is generated in cyclic reactions where the main part is played by nitrogen and carbon nuclei, which capture protons and then produce helium nuclei