“Complete theories do not fall from heaven”… Freud.
This well exemplified the attitude of many people — that if an idea is not completely developed and the theory so foolproof as to be beyond question, then they want no part in it.
Following Benjamin Franklin’s discovery of electricity, a scoffer caustically asked, “Of what use is that kind of knowledge?”
To which Franklin kindly replied, “Of what use is a child? He may grow into a man.”
We are very much in the same position as Franklin. We have discovered a new force or rather we have uncovered a force that has been here since the beginning of time but only a few have recognized it.
The BIG question is, “What shall we do with it?”
At the moment, we are doing two things: continuing research and acquainting interested people with the idea in order to get their cooperation. That is the reason for this paper. This is the first time the subject has been discussed publicly before an audience.
Eloptic Radiation Theory
There is an all-pervading media that is capable of being set into activity by certain forces. This media might be the same as that which is described by electronic and electrical engineers and physicists as the ether in action at higher harmonics than so far explored, or it may be a finer media. Since it acts as if it were different, let’s call it the FINE MEDIA for descriptive purposes at the moment.
Our material world is made up of combinations of a few units, some of which are called electrons, protons, and neutrons. These units act as if they were precipitations out of the Fine Media, because these units may be disintegrated or put back into their original state in the Fine Media. There is much in today’s scientific literature that points the way to these conclusions in addition to our own research results. The Fine Media can take on or manifest several different qualities, such as frequency and cohesive force.
Just as the ether can be caused to vibrate at different bands of frequencies to manifest as electricity, radio, heat, light, ultraviolet, etc., so can the Fine Media be caused to manifest in many ways.
When the Fine Media is properly influenced, it can be caused to coalesce to the point where material units such as electrons, protons, and neutrons are formed. When these units are desired to be grouped together, a still further manifestation of the Fine Media takes the form of the cohesive force necessary to form the nits into elements such as helium, iron, gold, and uranium. A still further manifestation of the cohesive force is necessary to form elements into compound or complex groups.
When such units are formed into elements or compounds, there is a stress field, or aura, around or radiating from such elements and complex groups. This field or aura has a frequency that is characteristic for each nuclear and molecular combination.
For example, chromium having in its nucleus 24 protons and 30 neutrons will have a slightly lower frequency than will iron with 26 protons and 28 neutrons, even though both nuclei contain the same total number of 54 units each.
This phenomenon is the basis of the idea covered by patents and its use as an analyzing medium, the subject matter of this paper.
It takes a certain amount of energy to cause the Fine Media to coalesce so that the units, protons and neutrons, will be formed and a lesser amount of energy to combine the units into the group of particles called the element, e.g., hydrogen, silver or mercury, and still a lesser amount of energy to form the molecules of the various compounds.
Such an element or compound can be disintegrated back into its components or units or even completely back into the Fine Media from whence it came. The atomic bomb action obeys this principle.
To disintegrate an element and change it back to its units takes energy, the amount depending upon the way the energy is applied. Assume a very heavy weight suspended by a long chain. To cause this weight to oscillate over, e.g., one foot with one blow from a hammer might require a hammer of very large proportion and a giant to wield it.
On the other hand, if a small boy gave the weight a push, then waited a bit and gave another push and another, all timed properly, the weight would begin to swing andintime would be swinging through the arc of one foot.
When a single blow in the form of a fast-moving particle, such as a neutron or alpha particle, accelerated in a cyclotron, is the “hammer”, and the nucleus of an element is to be broken up, the “hammer” must strike a tremendous blow (millions of electron volts) to crack the nucleus.
On the other hand, if a small amount of energy is fed into the nucleus at its proper frequency, the nucleus will easily, slowly, quietly fall apart into its units, just by neutralizing the effect of the cohesive force or binding energy as it is sometimes called. Thus a little energy of proper frequency steadily applied may do more than an enormous amount of energy applied in the brute force manner.
One of the most used but least controlled and understood methods of setting the Fine Media into oscillation is by the Mental-Emotional output from a human being. Just as the crystal in a radio power oscillator sets the frequency, and the energy applied to the plate circuit determines the power output, so does the Mind act to set the frequency and the Emotional Body to furnish the power.
Every time we generate an emotion we start a wave motion in the Fine Media. Such a wave motion can travel infinite distances, and it continues to oscillate until some counteracting wave motion is set up to neutralize the original or until the original wave motion is absorbed by someone or something that is in the proper frequency relation to it.
Just as a radio receiver that is tuned to the exact same frequency as a transmitter acts as if it were connected via some invisible medium to the transmitter by responding exactly as the transmitter is activated, so does a specimen of certain things act as if there were a connection between it and the parent body form which it was taken by responding exactly to all activities of the parent body.
At this point, the scoffer usually says, “That’s all bunk!” Suppose we digress a moment and see to whom he directs his verdict of “bunk”.
Almost 20 years ago, Dr Robert Millikan, former president of the California Institute of Technology and Nobel Prize winner in physics for his work in weighing the electron, was speaking before a joint meeting of all the technical societies of Kansas City, MO. He showed a large number of slides, the last of which was a smooth curve with “f” along the left margin and “e” across the bottom. He said, “Some day we will find that each of the elements of material matter vibrates at a frequency, each different from the other.”
The writer was thrilled beyond words because some of the material in this paper had at that time already been discovered.
Years laterm Dr I.I. Rabi of Columbia University won the AAAS prize for his work on nuclear resonance. Quoting from Science News Letter for January 6, 1940, on this work, we read, “Atoms can act like little radio transmitters broadcasting on ultra short waves.”
The Associated Press release of December 30, 1939, went further and said about Dr Rabi’s findings, “Man himself as well as all kinds of supposedly inert matter constantly emit rays. The existence of such rays coming from man and all living things, and probably from the inanimate, has been suspected by a few scientists for many years. Today brought experimental proof. The discovery shows that every atom and every molecule in nature is a continuous radio frequency broadcasting station. Those who believe in telepathy, second sight and clairvoyance, have in today the first real proof of the existence of invisible rays which really travel from one person to another.”
Another Associated Press release next day states, “Scientists who have studied Dr Rabi’s report said it furnishes for the first time a logical explanation of such things as telepathy, heretofore a quasi-scientific phenomenon, and the ‘feeling’ that someone else is approaching in a dark room. It may also prove to be the source of attraction or repulsion between individuals since all the atoms of the body are continually broadcasting weak but detectable radio signals.”
David Sarnoff, president of RCA, speaking before the 7th International Congress on Rheumatic Diseases in New York (June 1, 1949), said, “Men do not understand how their thoughts and emotions are born, and by what power they grow to fruition. Is this force electricity? When we understand each other, is it because we are attuned to each other electrically or electronically? If so, we should learn the electrical characteristics of the human body.”
On March 7, 1951, the Miami Herald (FL) printed a UP release from Copenhagen, Denmark, Agricultural expert Herluf Hansen said, “Any mental disturbance is immediately reflected in the pig sty. Keep your temper, talk friendly to your pigs, and caress them. The financial result will be excellent.”
The same paper on march 16, 1950, carries this, “If beautiful blondes run away at your approach, if dogs growl at you without explanation, cheer up, maybe it’s not your face after all. Might be your body vibrations.”
This is the theory put forward today b y Austrian psychologist Dr Hubert Rochracker, who says, “The human body sends out minute vibrations that, for good or ill, affect all our daily lives.”
Norman Hillier of New York, speaking at a convention of the National hair Dressers and Cosmetologists Association in Des Moines, IA, said, “A quarrel with her husband will have repercussions in milady’s hair in five minutes.” It reduces the life of a permanent.
The United Press (July 7, 1949) under a Paris dateline quotes two Frenchmen, Jules Clate and Andre Coatrieux, “Every metal and every person, living or dead, sends out short waves of different length. Personal wavelengths are as individual as fingerprints. Eventually we hope to develop it for diagnosing disease.”
You are all acquainted with the work of Dr J.B. Rhine of Duke University I extrasensory perception and his study of the mind and the way it can control things. Every doctor has recognized the effect of the emotions upon the physical body. Expression such as “that man gives me a pain” and “this business makes me sick” may be literally true, according to Dr Edward Weiss of Temple University Medical School. “The body has some sort of ‘organ language’ for the outlet of tense emotions, which mimic almost any disease”, said Dr Weiss.
The work of Dr Felix Bloch and his group at Stanford University and by Dr E. M. Purcell and his group at Harvard, the two groups working independently but simultaneously in 1945, confirmed the work of Dr Rabi and carried it further.
Anyone who is interested will find that hardly a week goes by without some press article or technical reference that ties in and touches on some phase of this phenomena.
A form of energy hitherto unknown has been discovered, and a basic patent has been issued covering its use.
The name ELOPTIC has been coined and assigned to the energy. The word is taken from the first two letters of electricity and the word optic, because the energy has some, but not all, of the characteristics of both those forms of energy.
Eloptic energy radiates from or is in some manner given off from, or forms a force field around, everything in our material world under normal conditions at ordinary room temperature and without any treatment of any kind. Each element and combination of elements that make up our material world gives off this energy; however, the energy from each element differs in frequency from the radiation coming from every other element. Thus, we have a means of determining the contents of an unknown material by analyzing the radiations from it without in any way destroying or disturbing the object or material in question, or having to excite it in any manner.
Eloptic energy obeys certain laws just as does electricity, heat and light, and we have uncovered man, but not all, of these laws and have learned much about the utilization of eloptic energy.
Just as electricity in its infancy had few uses because little was known about conductors, insulators, and the laws governing the action of the force, so is the use of eloptic energy today limited only by available technology.
We have barely scratched the surface of the possibilities; however, there are quite a few uses that have been developed and much is already known about the behavior of eloptic energy.
We have identified the radiations from over one-third of the elements of material matter; the ones easily obtained in relatively pure form such as beryllium, carbon, magnesium, aluminum, iron, copper, zinc, silver, tin, tantalum, platinum, gold, lead, bismuth, etc. Carnotite ore has been analyzed for radium and uranium. Many ore samples have been analyzed to determine the various elements contained in them, and the findings have been verified by more extensive chemical, spectrographic or other analytical methods.
Combinations of two or more elements give off a characteristic frequency of radiation by which the combination may be identified. For example, hydrocarbons such as benzene and toluene have been analyzed and the findings verified by spectrographic and chemical analysis.
Each of the tissues of the body give off a characteristic frequency of radiation by which it can be identified and the virility or vitality of the tissue may be determined by noting the intensity of the radiation.
Each disease entity gives off a characteristic emanation by which its presence in the body and something of its virility may be determined.
Eloptic energy can be conducted along light rays, focused with lenses, refracted with a prism and its effect implanted upon photographic film.
An aerial photograph film taken at several hundred thousand feet elevation can be used to determine what was in the objects photographed on the ground, such as people and metals in buildings, cars, etc.
The apparatus can be set for any elements such as iron, a stylus placed on the spot on the film to be analyzed, the energy implanted on the film can be picked up by the stylus, conducted through the instrument, and if there is the eloptic energy of iron on the film it is evident that there was iron on the ground, radiating the characteristic iron frequency even though not visible to the eye.
Plants can be analyzed to determine whether the root, stem, or fruit contains the elements necessary for proper nutrition, such as iron, copper, manganese and other trace elements. The plant or fruit can also be analyzed to determine whether it contains arsenic or other poisons from sprays.
Foods, poisons, drugs, etc., can be checked to determine their effect upon the body or any particular tissue of the body. Those foods or drugs to which a person is allergic and those which are compatible can be quickly identified.
Just as a photograph can hold the emanation of the object photographed, so can a specimen, an article of clothing, a drop of blood, urine or perspiration carry the emanations of the person from whence it came.
Such a specimen will carry all the emanations from all parts of the body of the person from whom the blood was taken. Its emanation and those taken directly from the body of the person will be the same. Thus, many of the characteristics of the person from whom the bloodor clothing came can be determined.
Thus far, only the analytical phase of the utilization of eloptic energy has been discussed, and that only in a very limited way; but it should be evident that eloptic energy has desirable applications in the fields of: (1) Laboratory chemical analysis, (2) Mining, (3) Prospecting, (4) Medicine, (5) Nutrition, (6) Animal husbandry, (7) Horticulture, (8) Military intelligence, (9) Criminology, and (10) General betterment of humanity.
Naturally, as time goes on and research is continued, many additional uses for eloptic energy will be discovered. We already know that eloptic energy can be generated or picked up from a natural source, filtered, amplified and directed into a tissue of the human body, a plant or animal to produce certain desired effects.
When the eloptic energy from an unknown material is caused to refract through a proper prism, it behaves in the same manner as energy from the visible portion of the spectrum, except that the angles of refraction are much more acute.
It must not be inferred that eloptic radiations and visible light and ultraviolet radiations are the same or related because they all may be refracted through the same prism or that the frequencies are related. Eloptic radiations will behave similarly to the radiations of the electromagnetic spectrum in some respects and entirely different in other respects, showing that they are probably not the same energy at all.
For this reason I prefer to call it the Finer Media.
A 31.5° glass prism with an index of refraction of 1.505 was used in one experiment (see circular coordinate chart). Eloptic energy from a number of elements was caused to enter the prism at an angle of incidence of 5.5° .
Using the face of the prism as “0”, carbon (element # 6) refracted at an angle of 18.25° to the face of the prism, and bismuth (element # 83) at 48.25°. Later, hydrogen gas was found to refract at 16.45°, a range of 31.8° for 83° of the elements of the material world.
Another arrangement employing a 24° prism with an angle of incidence of 17° showed hydrogen approximately 7° from the face of the prism, and bismuth at 62.3°, or a range of 5.3° for the same 83 elements.
A 19 black plexiglass prism of 1.847 index of refraction with an angle of incidence of 19 allowed bismuth to refract through at approximately 65.7° and carbon at 12.15°. All of the angles were measured with a protractor in a somewhat crude way because of the construction of the apparatus, but they are very close to being correct.
If a 90° arc is drawn with the center at the point of eloptic energy emergence at the face of the prism, between a line projected out in the direction along the face of the prism, it will be found that all of the radiations are refracted out in this quadrant (see Prism Refractor sketch). If the arc of the quadrant is divided into 1600 parts with “0” on the line extending along the face of the prism and 1600 on the line perpendicular to the face of the prism, then it will be found that with a certain apparatus arrangement, one of the isotopes of beryllium (Atomic # 4) refracts through at approximately 186 on the scale and that bismuth (Atomic # 83) refracts through at 1097 on the scale, and all of the other elements and their various isotopes refract through in their proper relationship, the one having the lowest nuclear weight indicating a higher frequency and a more acute angle of refraction, and the one with a heavier nuclear weight indicating a lower frequency and emerging at a less acute angle. The tests show that eloptic energy obeys some of the laws of refraction just as does the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
A series of experiments has been carried out that points rather conclusively to the assumption that the radiation that comes from the various pure elements is from the entire nucleus and not from the planetary electrons or from either the neutrons or the protons alone.
The best obtainable pure specimens of the elements Titanium, Vanadium, Chromium, Manganese, Iron and Nickel were used. Tests were run on Radiation Analyzer # 508. Energy peaks from these elements were measured and the prism dial settings for each peak were noted. A study of the number of energy peaks for the various elements indicated that the number coincided in most case with the number of isotopes of the respective elements.
One important item was that one of the peaks for chromium and one for titanium were very close together; that is, they refracted through the prism at near the same angle. The same for another peak of chromium and one for iron, and another for an iron peak and a nickel peak.
The number of protons in each of the isotopes was multiplied by their individual mass weight of 1.00758 and the number of neutrons were multiplied by their individual mass weight of 1.00894 and the two products added to get a factor representing the differnce in two isotopes of the same nuclear particles but with a different number of neutrons and protons in each nuclei.
Thus, titanium with 22 protons and 28 neutrons has a factor of 50.41708, while chromium with 24 protons and 26 neutrons has a factor of 50.41436, a difference of 0.00272, chromium being the lighter, in nuclear weight.
Titanium = ( 22 x 1.00758 ) + ( 28 x 1.00894 ) = 50.41708
Chromium = (24 x 1.00758 ) + ( 26 x 1.00894 ) = 50.41436
Difference = 0.00272
These factors and the prism dial settings were used to produce the curve shown (Nuclear Weight Factor vs Prism Angle). One outstanding fact noted was that the lighter the factor value, the lower the dial setting or higher the frequency of the emanating energy. Another was the smoothness of the curve. Nearly all points are in proper relationship. Irregularities are probably due to slight variations from a true flat of the prism surface.
While plotting this curve, it was noted that in a few cases, there were apparently too many energy peaks for some of the elements. Further study revealed that there were radioactive isotopes of the so-called man-made variety that would fit into these spots. It had already been noted that known radioactive elements gave a much more violent radiation than the so-called stable variety. Tests were then made on the various isotopes to determine the distance that the radiation, or rather, the force field, seemed to extend out from the specimen. Vanadium showed that the three isotopes radiated 18.5″, 5.5″, and 15.5″ respectively, indicating that apparently the middle one was the stable one and the other two were radioactive. The same thing was done for Iron and the distances were 16.5″, 8.5″, 17″, 13″ and 10″ respectively. This looked like there might be a discrepancy as there should not be a radioactive isotope at the point of higher degree of radiation. A reference to the percentage of material usually found in the various isotopes showed that the isotope that radiated 17″ was the one that runs about 90.2% prevalence. It could be that some of the iron of this weight was radioactive or there might have been some contamination from manganese which has a radioactive isotope of the same weight.
After this same procedure had been followed for all the places where there might be a question, and everything seemed to fall into proper place, it was decided to try it on elements at the heavy end of the list. Bismuth showed four isotopes in a row with radiation distances as follows: 13″ for the stable and lightest isotope, and 24.5″, 22″, and 26″, respectively, for the radioactive isotopes. Then a gold link bracelet of very old gold, an heirloom made before the days of so much alloying, was used. The lightest was the stable isotope with a radiation distance of 6″, with two others of 12.75″ and 14.5″ for the two radioactive isotopes.
The field of exploration into molecular combinations is too vast to be covered in this paper. In fact, not enough work has been done to warrant such detail.
The chief chemist of the analytical laboratory of a large corporation learned, through a mutual friend, about some of our work while the patent application was being processed in Washington and were not too anxious to divulge much information, but after several letters we agreed to help him. One of his letters said, “We have recently expanded into a new field of research and some of the problems encountered are giving us a great deal of trouble. Your apparatus may be the answer.”
We allowed him to bring his specimens to our laboratory and we spent two days with him, most of the time in getting equipment ready for the tests. Finally, we analyzed the contents of four bottles marked A1, A2, A3, A4. We had no idea beforehand what was in them.
We poured a small quantity of liquid from bottle A1 into a pyrex beaker, placed it in the instrument, and proceeded to “tune in” to all the “broadcasts” that came from the beaker and its contents. Then we did the same for the liquid in bottles A2, A3, and A4. As soon as we had listed the five energy peaks from the empty beaker, six from A1, nine from A2, four from A3and nine from A4, and had charted them with relation to each other, the chemist said, “Now I know my trouble. A1 is a solvent that works fine, A2 is supposed to be the same. Our tests and those of the oil company who sells it to us say it is the same as A1, but it will not work right and is causing us much trouble. It is quite obvious that A2 has been contaminated by A4, which is toluene. A3 is benzene.”
The three contaminants marked (*) were in both solvent A2 and toluene. The empty beaker contained oxygen and boron, silicon and calcium, per Corning Glass Company and a separate spectrographic analysis.
He took a copy of our test data back with him, and in about a month he wrote, “We have finished our chemical and spectrographic analyses on the production solvent samples we tested in your laboratory, and I have gone over the data obtained in your laboratory. Toluene has nine characteristic groupings within the molecule, five of these are unique to toluene and four are also found in the benzene molecule. The data from your laboratory is consistent with these facts.”
Think of electricity today and then try to picture Ben Franklin with his first “condenser” charged by electricity from a cloud via a kite string. Perhaps some of you remember seeing in museums some of the early day electrical apparatus and how peculiar it appeared. Remember the first crystal detector wireless set you ever saw, and then look at a modern radio installation.
We are just now learning which materials are conductors and which are insulators of eloptic energy. Our present apparatus is very crude compared with what we expect it to be in a few years with the help of physicists who really want to develop this idea.
Our present method of detection depends upon the sense of touch of the operator and that requires training, just as a chemist, a radio operator, a good cook, an artist, all require training. Some day we will have learned more about eloptic energy so we can get it to ring a bell, light a light, or actuate a meter. Until then, we will be dependent upon present methods.
We have been able to impose eloptic energy upon an electric current and amplify it, but since it is not electricity it alone will not operate electrical devices.
So far we have found nothing that does not lend itself to being analyzed as to its elemental content with the exception of the air around us and those materials of which the apparatus is composed, unless there is a fair quantity available.
Despite some of the limitations and apparent crudity of the apparatus and techniques sofar developed, it can do things in the laboratory in a few minutes that are absolutely impossible or may take long periods of time by chemical analysis. It can quickly point the way for chemical analysis to follow in order to eliminate many of the time-taking tests when an unknown is to be analyzed. It is especially valuable where there is only a small quantity of the material available. A drop of unknown liquid will work better than a gallon. The material to be analyzed is on no way changed or destroyed during the analysis. Only the emanation normally radiating from it are utilized.
We are not chemical engineers, physicists or mathematicians, but we have spent over a quarter of a century observing and experimenting, blindly most of the time, to uncover a force or energy or phenomena, about which there had, until recently, been nothing written that we might follow.
When the US Patent Office issues a basic patent with half a dozen method claims covering the use for analysis of an energy that was not mentioned in any acceptable standard text, it should be quite evident that this is not a wild dream of a disordered mind.
For this purpose, several ounces of sterling silver were buried about 30 inches deep in a level, open field. The Analyzer was placed nearby and its input was connected to a long insulated copper wire. On the end of this was fastened a test probe.
To determine how far the energy extended from the buried silver, the probe was driven into the ground successively at various distances along several radii, and readings were taken on the Analyzer. In this way the field of radiation was found, at that time, to form an irregular “pool”, extending not less than 50 feet from the silver and mostly very much farther.
Now two magnets were made, hollow core solenoids drawing about 10amperes at twelve volts. These were paced on end about 20 feet due east of the silver, and iron rods (5/8″ by 4 ft) were driven through them and about two feet into the ground.
At first three batteries (18 volts) were connected, and about an hour was allowed for the energy field to adjust itself. Then tests were run as before with the Analyzer, and it was found that the field had shrunk considerably. Following this, two more batteries were attached and additional tests were made. The energy field was now found to have shrunk still farther, and to possess a more simplified outline showing certain definite characteristics. Toward the East it terminated near the magnets, and to the Northwest it exhibited a pronounced bulge of about 15 or 16 ft radius.
At this point the two magnets and batteries were moved to within 12 ft of the silver and two more batteries were added, making 7 in all (42 volts). Measurements with the Analyzer now showed that the energy pool had completely disappeared as such. There remained only two well defined bands or streams of energy about a foot wide. One of these extended along a straight line connecting the silver and the magnets, and the other thrust out about 8 ft toward the Northeast, then turned and proceeded directly to the magnets. Further tests with the Analyzer showed that the energy drawn to the magnets appeared to dissipate itself above them and over the batteries in a kind of plume.
This experiment demonstrates that this energy is definitely subject to magnetic attraction. It also shows that the energy exhibits a strong tendency to flow toward the Northwest.
Detection of Emanations from Materials & Measurement of the Volumes Thereof
(Cl. 250-63) Sept. 27, 1940
Thomas G. Hieronymous
The primary aim of this invention is the provision of a method and apparatus for detecting the presence of any element or combination of elements that may be in the substances under observation and to determine the intensity or quantity thereof.
This invention has for a still further object to provide a method and means for detecting the presence of and analyzing and measuring the quantity or intensity of elements or combinations of elements in the substance under observation through the capture and analysis of radiations emanating from the said elements, whether the said radiations be of electrical or optical characteristics, or both.
A yet further aim of this invention is to provide an instrument having a reaction device, the surface whereof is affected by the introduction of radiations thereto, in such a manner that the surface of the device will have its ability to resist movement of articles over its face changed when energy flows through the apparatus, of which the reaction device is a part.
A further aim of the invention is to provide an atomic radiation analyzer, having as one of its important elements, a reaction device, the surface whereof is affected to increase adhesion or friction as the operator of the analyzer strokes the surface of the device and manipulates the instrument to direct radiation thereto.
It ahs been discovered that there are radiations emanating from or released from each of the known elements constituting material matter. These radiations occur at ordinary room temperatures, i.e., 40° F to 90° F and they have electrical and optical characteristics and frequencies which are disposed in the zone from the violet ray portion of the visible spectrum up into the ultraviolet portion, which zone has as yet not been fully explored. Since it has been found that these radiations from the elements or their effect may be carried over electrical conductors, it is the object of this invention to provide apparatus having suitable conductors and parts so that analyzing of substances may be accomplished. The radiation or the effect of such radiations from known elements or combinations of two or more elements of material matter may not only be carried over electrical conductors and handled in a manner similar to an ordinary electrical currnet, but they may be affected by electrical capacity inductance and resistance. The radiations may also be refracted, focused, diffracted or otherwise manipulated in the same manner as the radiations of the visible spectrum. Accordingly, therefore, this invention has for one of its aims to provide an instrument for handling the radiations, identifying their presence, analyzing them and measuring their intensity — all to the end that the presence of one or more of the known elements may be concluded from the character of the radiation as determined by the behavior of the analyzing device and the values read from the appropriate scales forming a part of the instrument.
Other objects of the invention will appear during the course of the following specifications, referring to the accompanying drawing, wherein:
Figure 1 is a schematical and diagrammatical view illustrating an instrument for detection of emanations from materials and measuring the volumes thereof, made in accordance with the present invention.
Radiations from each of the known elements of matter produce some form of energy, probably electrons which can be made to flow along electrical conductors. The flow from each of the elements having characteristics different from the others. Conversely, the flow of electrons along a conductor produces a radiation having characteristics of the radiation from each respective element.
Such of the known elements as are required to feed growing plants have been transmitted to the plants through metallic conductors as the plants were entirely isolated from the elements upon which they were fed. More precisely, seeds were planted in boxes in a darkened basement room. One of the boxes of plants of plants containing some of the seeds was used as a control and no apparatus for transmitting element radiations thereto provided. The remaining boxes of plants had electrodes or plates of conducting material mounted or otherwise disposed adjacent thereto, and each box of plants was separately attached to a conductor extending to a plant outside the building where electrodes or plates were attached to a conductor extending to a point outside the building where electrodes or plates were attached to the conductors and allowed to remain exposed to the light. Such of the known elements as required to impart normal characteristics to the plants were apparently fed thereto by having the radiations of the elements from the light conducted to the plants through the wires and associated electrodes. The treated plants were relatively healthy but the control plants assumed the characteristics of growing vegetation which has been deprived of the elements in natural light. Particularly was the control plant devoid of chlorophyll while the remaining plants were green.
Apparatus for laboratory or commercial use and for detecting the presence of any of the known elements, preferably relies upon the element of touch, and therefore the skill of the operator. The instrument diagrammatically illustrated in Figure 1 comprises a unit 10 including a coil 12 disposed to pick up radiation from substance 14, wherein the known elements are disposed and that are to be detected. The temperature of substance 14 may be within the range of from 40° to 90° F, but such temperature is not critical. This range has been found satisfactory in actual practice.
Coil 12 may be a spirally wound flat body approximately 2 inches in diameter and formed of magnet insulated wire of any conventional size. As an alternative, this coil 12 may be a single layer, cylindrical coil, wound on an insulating material substantially 1 inch in diameter. The examples given for this coil 12 are not critical and so long as the coil is in the field of radiation of substance 14, the purpose of unit 10 will be fulfilled.
Instead of employing coil 12, wire 20 may be directly connected to substance 14 or wire 20 may be terminated in an electrode and the latter disposed with relation to substance 14 as to pick up the radiations therefrom, as does coil 12 in the illustrated embodiment. In this case, wire 18 may be grounded or connected separately to substance 14 or terminated in another electrode which may also be placed near substance 14. The proximity of substance 14 to coil 12 or the electrodes as the case may be, is such as to be within the field of radiation of the emanations from substance 14.
Apparatus 16 is a manually manipulatable analyzer tuneable to the specific radiation desired. It consists of two principal parts, the first being the two standard type of variable condensers, 22 and 24, and the second being the ray refracting device made up of electrode 32 — passageway 36, prism 28, and electrode 38, all as shown in Figure 2. Apparatus 16 is joined to unit 10 by conductors 18 and 20 across which is disposed a conventional variable condenser 22 and with which is employed a condenser of similar type 24, located in conductor 26, as illustrated. Variable condensers 22 and 24 may be of standard radio broadcast type and they are provided with graduated scales in conventional manner.
Prism 28 is of any suitable ray defracting substance as glass, quartz or analogous materials. In practice a prism 28 having two polished faces disposed at angles from 30 to 60 degrees has proved satisfactory. An electrode 32 is joined to coil 12 by conductor 20 and conductor 34. Stationary electrode 32 may be of any electrical conducting material such as aluminum, brass, copper or substances having analogous electrical properties. The distance of electrode 32 from prism 28 is not critical so long as the radiations or emanations reach prism 28 through a confined path of travel in the nature of a thin band or line. In practice, this distance was from one-half to two inches. A passageway 36 formed between a pair of optically opaque insulating elements directs the radiations to a desired area on one face of prism 28.
The angle of incidence of this path of travel to the face of the prism 28 was of the order of 5.5 degrees for best results and for obtaining the wisest useful segment along scale 31.
An electrode 38 shiftable along scale 31 is joined to unit 40 by conductor 42. Electrode 38 is of the same specifications as to materials and distance from prism 28 as electrode 32 but is suitably mounted for movement adjacent to scale 31 where its position may readily be indicated by a pointer 78 moveable therewith and extending outwardly therefrom toward scale 31 in alignment with the path of travel of the thin ray of energy indicated by the line 76. The axis of rotation of electrode 38 is substantially on a median line extending longitudinally across the face of prism 28 proximal to electrode 38. Electrodes 32 and 38 work best when they are relatively thin and of the order of a few mils thickness.
As illustrated in Figure 2, scale 31 is calibrated with indicia 44, and these indicia are on chart 46 along one edge thereof. The indicia on chart 46 have been given a corresponding reference numeral to those on scale 31 for clarifying the description hereinafter set down. Indicia 48 on chart 46 designate the atomic weight of elements of matter and continue up to include all known elements of the electrochemical series when the full size chart is employed.
Unit 40 is a variable resistor. It may be either a continuous variable type or it may consist of a series of non-inductive resistance units 50, 52, 54 and 56, each adjusted by a switch having movable points 62, 64, 66 and 68 respectively.
In practice, unit 50 will have ten times the resistance of unit 52, which in turn is ten times the size of unit 54, etc. (The values may range from fractions of 1 ohm up to several megohms). Unit 50, e.g., might be 1 megohm in steps of 100,000 ohms each; unit 52 would then be 100,000 in steps of 10,000 ohms each; unit 54 then would be 10,000 ohms total in steps of 1,000 ohms each, and so on until the smallest unit would have steps low enough to give the desired exactness to the measured volume or intensity of the radiations.
Unit 40 is joined to unit 70 by means of an untuned radio frequency type transformer 58 through the medium of conductors 42 and 60. Unit 40 may be joined to unit 78 by resistance coupling or other conventional coupling of the type frequently used in standard broadcast radio receivers and which is analogous to transformer 58.
Unit 70 may be a conventional three stage tuned radio frequency broadcast band type of amplifier with the usual variable resistances omitted or it may be of the resistance coupled or impedance coupled type often used in radio broadcast type amplifiers. Said amplifier intensifies the value of the radiations reaching it so that the effect upon detector 72 is clearly discernable. Under some conditions, the reactions from unit 40 may be put directly into detector 72 without interposing unit 70 but amplification of the radiations is desirable.
Detector 72 is a device that will indicate a change from its normal state when the radiations from the analyzer 16 are caused to influence it.
Detector 72 is preferably an electrical conductor coated with a material having such characteristics that under the influence of energy flowing through the conducting portion, the coating will change its surface tension or viscosity, or in some manner give evidence of the presence of the energy flowing through the conducting portion by producing a greater drag or resistance to the movement of any part of the body of the operator thereover, such as the hand or fingers. It has been found practical to use a metal plate covered with a sheet of plastic or coated with lacquer, which plate is of an area convenient for stroking with the tips of the fingers or the palm of the hand. It may also be a sheet or plastic with a coil similar to coil 12 disposed adjacent thereto and connected to the coupling transformer 14.
Figure 4 illustrates another form of that part of unit 16, sowing Figure 2, so far as the element separator or filter portion thereof is concerned. This separation or filtering is accomplished in the embodiment illustrated in Figure 1 and Figure 2 by prism 28. In Figure 4 a lens 100 has the electrode 32 disposed adjacent thereto and movable electrode 38 is shiftable toward and from lens 100.
Scale indicia 44 are disposed in a line parallel to the path of travel of electrode 38 and the element or elements involved will be determined by the location or the scale of pointer 78 at the instant a reaction is obtained at detector 72.
Chart 46 is of course produced as a part of the complete apparatus when such apparatus is manufactured and after prism 28 (or lens 100, as the case may be) is installed as a unit of the material detector. A small quantity of each of the known chemical elements is placed adjacent to coil 12 and with full knowledge of the element, the angle of radiation formed by line 76 and, the face of the prism 28, is determined and the degree numeral on scale 31, which identifies the angle of radiation, is placed on chart 46 as one of the indicia 44 (degree readings from scale 31) and indicia 48 (the atomic weight of the known elements) then when the apparatus is in practical use, any material or substance may be located adjacent to coil 12 and its components definitely determined by positioning electrode 38 on a line of radiation 76 where the degree number on the face of the scale 31 is quickly read and used by referring to chart 46. When the degree indicia 44 is so located, the line on chart 46 extending therefrom is followed until it reaches the diagonal line 45 on chart 46 whereupon the operator then follows the intersecting line to the lower edge of the chart where the value of the atomic weight 48 is read. These atomic weights are well known and are used in conventional texts and scientific works.
In practice, for example, let it be assumed that substance 14 contains calcium but it is not known that such is the case. The angle at which the unknown ray or radiation leaves prism 28 will teach its name form as the operator moves the fingers over the surface of detector 72, electrode 38 is shifted slowly and pointer 78 moves along scale 31 until a greater degree of adhesion or resistance to motion at the surface of the detector 72 is set up. This occurs when the energy or radiation flows from unit 16 through units 40 and 70 into detector 72. When electrode 38 is at a position where it is intercepting a radiation from prism 28, or lense 100, the resistance to stroke at detector 72 will be of highest order.
As soon as electrode 38 has been positioned as described, variable condenser 22 is adjusted while the operator continues to stroke detector 72 to a position where the greatest drag at detector 72 is again manifested. Next, variable condenser 24 is similarly manipulated to obtain a setting where the drag at detector 72 again reaches a maximum. Electrode 38 is then readjusted for a final position. The employment of condensers 22 and 24 insure a more accurate setting of pointer 78 by virtue of their additional filtering action.
In the illustration, electrode 38 has intercepted the path of radiation with pointer 78 at the numeral 30 on scale 31 and reference to chart 46 will teach the operator that the element having atomic weight 79.2 is that from which the radiation along dotted line 76 is traveling. If atomic weight 79.2 is calcium then that element in substance 14 has been located.
The manner of using lense 100 is substantially the same as described in connection with the use of prism 28. The focal point of paths of radiation of the elements will cause detector 72 to react and establish a drag to the operator’s touch, whereupon the scale 31 may be read and its reading translated by reference to chart 46.
What actually happens at detector 72 to increase or decrease it drag to the touch of the operator, is not known but the apparatus functions as above set forth when constructed as specified, and therefore, a positively acting analyzer for atomic radiations is produced even though the principle upon which it is based is not fully known.
Radiation from hydrogen passes through prism 26 at the sharpest angle or at the lowest degree measured from the face of prism 28. Radiations from other elements and their isotopes pass through prism 28 at greater angles but in the same order as their atomic weights — the heavier the element or its isotope, the wider the angle.
A substance composed of two or more of the known elements may be analyzed as herein set down to determine its component constituents. The substance itself which consists of two or more known elements may be identified because the emanations therefrom will produce a composite frequency peculiar to that combination of elements. All combinations may be charted in precisely the same manner as herein described for all the individual known elements in the electrochemical series.
Unit 40 is used to measure the intensity of the radiations from a given element or substance by adjusting the several switches comprising unit 40 until the maximum amount of resistance has been introduced into the circuit without interrupting the reactions manifested at detector 72. The switches are calibrated in conventional resistance values and a chart must be prepared that will relate the value indicating by switch setting of unit 40 the quantitative units of measurement.
It is realized that apparatus for detecting materials and measuring the volumes thereof, having physical characteristics different from those illustrated and described, might be made without departing from the spirit of the invention or scope of the appended claims.
Having thus described the invention, what is claimed as new and desired to be secured by Letters Patent is: