Ever since electricity in its modern form was discovered more than a century ago, it has been taken for granted that the electron was the fundamental charge carrier. The physicist J.J. Thomson was the first to speculate on the nature of the electron. His experiments with cathode rays prompted him to make a bold proposal: “these mysterious rays are streams of particles much smaller than atoms, they are in fact minuscule pieces of atoms.” He called these particles “corpuscles,” and suggested that they might make up all of the matter in atoms. It was startling to imagine a particle residing inside the atom–most people thought that the atom was indivisible, the most fundamental unit of matter. J.J. Thomson later came up with the ‘plum pudding’ model of the atom wherein numerous electrons were embedded into the positive matter of the atom. The term ‘electron’ coined by Irish physicist George F. Fitzgerald replaced the term corpuscles and the modern day electron was born.
Max Planck’s formulation of the Planck constant and Einstein’s experiments with the Photoelectric effect demonstrated that electrons emitted and absorbed energy not in continuous waves as had been previously surmised but in small indivisible packets of energy which were termed ‘quanta’. The name eventually given to this new aspect of light was the photon, although it officially received this name only in 1926 when Gilbert N Lewis formally proposed the name ‘photon’ for the particle responsible for the mediation of energy between electrons.
There can be little doubt that light does possess both wave like and particle like properties. This has been demonstrated over and over again during the past four centuries from the time of Newton and Hugyens, right up to Einstein’s photoelectric effect and the Compton effect. Thus the wave-particle duality of light is well established. The question that puzzled scientists of the time and still continues to pose an enigma to scientists of today is how can a particle possess both frequency and wavelength while maintaining always a distinctive energy as demonstrated in the photoelectric effect? The energy of a wave is dispersed throughout its length. How and why Quantum Mechanics sought to extend wave-particle duality to ALL sub-atomic particles including protons, electrons, neutrons and even atoms and molecules themselves is another story. Of interest is the theory of ‘complementarity’ formulated by Neils Bohr that states that light can possess the properties of a wave and of a particle but never possess both properties simultaneously. This statement, even though it is one of the corner stones of Quantum Mechanics, is ‘unacceptable’ because it is not founded in reality or supported by experiment.
The photon as envisioned by ‘Gestalt Aether Theory’ would possess the properties of both wave and particle simultaneously. Thus the ‘Gestalt Aether Theory’ model of the photon may be thought to be based upon the ultrasound waves used in lithotripsy to shatter kidney stones. These ultra sound waves, apart from possessing particle like properties in their capacity, to deliver enough energy to shatter calcified kidney stones also possess, like the photon, wave-length and frequency! Thus ultrasound used in lithotripsy might have a wavelength of 0.01 m and a frequency of 30 KHz! This is information that can be used as a model for the photon, namely a wave with particle like properties! It would certainly serve to explain many aspects of light and electromagnetic radiation that have been obscured almost to the point of obfuscation by the various esoteric and arcane solutions put forward to explain their wavelike and particle properties. It should be pointed out that such an interpretation of wave/particle duality precludes ‘complementarity’ theory.
Elaborating on this hypotheses that a photon can be part particle and part wave. The electron is a charged particle, therefore when it is undergoing a change in its energy what could be more natural than that it emits or absorbs bursts of electrical energy to bring about the needed change in energy. This might take the form shown in the diagram below:
The electron emits bursts of energy, it cannot emit a single fixed burst of energy because that would not account for observed phenomenon that photons have trillions upon trillions of (if electromagnetic radiation is included ) different energies. Since the time lapse between these emissions of individual bursts of energy is extremely small, the physical gaps between the different emitted bands of energy is equally small and would exclude the inclusion of any atoms or molecules, hence the gaps between the emitted bands of energy contain a vacuum which is an excellent di-electric. The existence of bands of energy separated by a dielectric gives the energy emitted by the electron the structure of a capacitor, this in turn results in the electrical energy of the bands of emitted energy forming a solenoidal field around itself.
An examination of this model of the photon given below shows clearly both the solenoidal field surrounding the photon structure as well as the bands of energy separated by a dielectric.
The existence of the solenoidal field around the photon, gives it wave like characteristics, it can link up with other photons either end to end or side by side (i.e., serially or in parallel). The frequency of the photon would depend on the time interval at which it is emitted by the electron. For instance blue light is emitted at a rate of